# [time-nuts] How to get 32.768KHz from 10MHz.

BriMDavis at aol.com BriMDavis at aol.com
Sat Oct 25 20:47:41 UTC 2008

```>
> A 10 MHz clock into a PIC gives a 400 ns/instruction time.
>
> To produce 32.768 kHz you flip an output pin put every 38
> instructions, except that 9632 times per second you make
>

To figure out those sorts of ratios for static frequency dividers,
Allan Herriman has written a nifty fractional divider script that
generates VHDL/Verilog code for CPLD/FPGA applications:

http://fractional-divider.tripod.com/

It will generate dual modulus or phase accumulator
based dividers, with various implementation options.

To generate a 10 Mhz to 32.768 Khz with a frequency error
tolerance of 1e-12 :

fracn09.pl  -t 1e-12  10e6  32768

Which generates a file "fracn.vhd":
<snip>
--
-- Frequency Results (use_phase_accumulator = FALSE) :
--  Achieved Output Frequency: 32768 Hz.
--  Achieved Relative Frequency Error: 0 (0 ppm)
--  Achieved Frequency Error: 0 Hz.
--
<snip>

constant n              : positive := 305;  -- prescaler divides by n or n + 1
constant a              : positive := 211;  -- this many counts of 305
constant b              : natural  := 45;   -- this many counts of 306

<snip>
--
-- Design Parameters (use_phase_accumulator = FALSE) :
--  Approx 20 flip flops (9 in prescaler, 9 in controller and 2 retimes).
--  The recursive controller uses approx 17 flip flops.
--  The Dual-Modulus Prescaler uses ratios /305,/306
--  The Output consists of 211 cycles of 305 input clocks,
--  and 45 cycles of 306 input clocks.
--  There are 256 output clocks for every 78125 input clocks.
--

Brian

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