[time-nuts] quartz oscillator injection locking

paul swed paulswedb at gmail.com
Sat Jul 19 16:45:14 EDT 2014

Attilla I did look at some of the documents. But none showed practical HF
class injection locking. Say as an example a 6 MHz xtal to a 1 or 2 MHz
It maybe as easy as a single transistor in the oscillators ground lead.
Always on till a brief pulse from the 1 or 2 MHz ref cuts it off. I think I
just talked myself into an attempt.

On Sat, Jul 19, 2014 at 7:23 AM, Attila Kinali <attila at kinali.ch> wrote:

> On Tue, 24 Jun 2014 21:18:20 +0200
> Francesco Messineo <francesco.messineo at gmail.com> wrote:
> > what would be the best method to try injection locking a butler common
> > base crystal oscillator (see figure in
> > http://www.eska.dk/oscillator_data.htm for schematic)?
> > Any comment about close-in phase noise performance when adding
> > injection locking to such oscillators?
> > Thanks in advance for any hint.
> Moin,
> I cannot give you performance data, but i can point you at some papers
> that deal with injection locking.
> Probably one of the best known papers is from Robert Adler[1].
> It mainly deals with how locking comes to be, what the conditions
> for locking are and how to calculate those.
> The other big name in injection locking is Kurokawa Kaneyuki.
> His first paper [2] deals, as the title suggests, with noise in
> coupled oscillators vs noise in single oscillators.
> His second paper [3] deals with injection locking itself, similar
> to what Adler did, but with a more "modern" terminology, but also
> with more math.
> (There are more papers from him on this topic, but i have not had
> time to read those)
> Chang et al. did a nice work on locking of multiple oscillators in [4]
> and how coupling directions affect them.
> Razavi did a nice rework of earlier findings on injection locking in [5].
> In my opinion, this has one of the easier understandable math in all the
> papers i've read on injection locking. Also his liberal use of graphs
> simplify the interpretation of the formulas.
> Zhang et al. did a quite nice analysis of noise behavoir of coupled
> oscillators in [6]. But my main reason for mentioning it here is
> the measurements they made, which might give you an indiciation on where
> you might end up with your circuit.
> If you are more on the simulation side, [7] might give you a point to
> start how to model injection locking in spice (though, i must say that
> is one paper i stumbled upon and probably not the best in that area).
>                         Attila Kinali
> [1] "A Study of Locking Phenomena in Oscillators", by Robert Adler, 1946
> reprinted in Proceedings of IEEE October 1973
> [2] "Noise in Synchronized Oscillators", by Kurokawa Kaneyuki, 1968
> [3] "Injection Locking in Microwave Solid-State Oscillators", by Kurokawa
> Kaneyuki, 1973
> [4] "Phase Noise in Coupled Oscillators: Theory and Experiment",
> by Chang, Cao, Mishra and York, 1997
> [5] "A Study of Injection Locking and Pulling in Oscillators", by Behzad
> Razavi, 2004
> [6] "A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Noise Behavior of
> Subharmonically Injection Locked Local Oscillators", by Zhan, Zhou,
> and Daryoush, 1992
> [7] "Capturing Oscillator Injection Locking via Nonlinear Phase-Domain
> Macromodels",
> by Lai and Roychowdhury, 2004
> --
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