[time-nuts] 4046 replacement

Alexander Pummer alex at pcscons.com
Sun May 6 05:57:18 EDT 2018

but as I wrote a while ego ADI has a bit different chip which is free of 
dead zone and much faster, I used it for low phase-noise clock generator 
for 3,1Gb/s fiber optic systems of C-Cor/Comlux in the end of the past 
century, now I am on vacation and do not have my engineering note books 
with me, but 1) I already posted it in the past 2) I will post it again 
after I returned home,
On 5/6/2018 1:03 AM, Charles Steinmetz wrote:
> See below for further information on working with the 4046/7046/9046 
> PLL families, including must-have design tools for anyone designing 
> with these devices.
> I wrote:
>>> The "flaw" in the 4046 is a dead zone around zero error in Phase
>>> Comparator 2 (the PC one generally uses).
> Magnus responded:
>> It is very bad indeed. Someone chose to use the 4046 to lock up a 155,52
>> MHz VCXO to a 8 kHz reference, using a 4046 as a core. The charge-pump
>> was then "accelerated" with a supposedly better charge-pump with a ton
>> of passives. Turns out that the dead-band was still there to haunt the
>> designers. The 155,52 MHz was further multiplied to become the 2,48832
>> Gb/s clock, and as they measured this they had problems with the
>> jitter/wander of it
> Of course the dead zone was still there -- it is built into the 
> 4046/7046 phase comparator, and nothing you do after-the-fact can 
> eliminate it (but see below re: linearizing the 4046/7046 phase 
> comparator). Most of what is wrong with the circuit you describe above 
> is simply bad system design, not any fault of the 4046.
> While it is true that some people call the PC2 output of the 4064 a 
> "charge pump," as a voltage source it is, at best, a very poor one. 
> The 9046 has a real, current-mode charge pump with tri-state outputs. 
> The attached charts show the difference in linearity [1].
> There are tricks one can pull to linearize the PC2 output of a 4046 or 
> 7046.  In particular, (i) injecting current into the PC2 output node 
> biases the detector away from the dead zone at the price of a static 
> phase error, and (ii) instead of using a passive RC filter, run the 
> PC2 output through the resistor to the virtual-ground input of an 
> active filter, which effectively turns the PC2 voltage output into a 
> bipolar current output.  Still, however, the 4046/7046 PC2 cannot 
> overlap positive and negative steering pulses as the 9046 PC2 can, and 
> the 9046 thresholds are established by a real voltage reference, so 
> the 9046 will always be better than the best that can be done with a 
> 4046 or 7046.
> I do not use 4046-type devices very often, but ever since the 9046 
> became available I have used it exclusively in preference to the 4046 
> and 7046.
> Best regards,
> Charles
> [1]  The attached charts are taken from the Philips CMOS PLL 
> Designer's Guide (1995), which is an absolute must-have for anyone 
> designing with the 4046/7046/9046 PLL families.  List member Daniel 
> Mendes pried the Guide and supporting files out of Philips a couple of 
> years ago, and list member Oz from DFW hosts them on his site.  I 
> cropped the pages of the Design Guide to eliminate the large white 
> borders and re-posted it all as a zip file to Didier's site: 
> <http://www.ko4bb.com/getsimple/index.php?id=download&file=03_App_Notes_-_Proceedings/74HC4046_7046_9046_CMOS_PLL_design_guide_and_files_Philips_1995.zip>. 
> Enjoy!
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